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Germanium Ge (Element) - PubChem

First proposed to exist by Dmitri Mendeleyev in 1871 based on gaps in his newly created Periodic Table of Elements, germanium was discovered by the German chemist Clemens Winkler in the mineral argyrodite (Ag 8 GeS 6) in 1886. Today, germanium is primarily obtained from the smelting of zinc ores and from the byproducts of burning certain types ...

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Who Discovered Germanium - Want to Know it

Dec 01, 2013  The existence of germanium was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, almost two decades before it was discovered. He named it ekasilicon based on its position on the periodic table. The path to the discovery of this element began in 1885 when a new mineral called argyrodite was discovered in Germany.

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Germanium

Germanium was discovered in 1886 by Clemins Winker. Germanium's existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. He predicted the existence of Germanium as ekasilicon. It occurrence is .007% of the earth's crust. In the element form it is a lustrous white, brittle metalloid.

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Germanium History, Uses, Facts, Physical Chemical ...

Germanium was discovered in 1886. Germanium belongs to the carbon family and used in electronic devices as semiconductors. History and Discovery. Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of germanium in 1869. He named it eka-silicon and proposed some of the physical characteristics of the then unknown metal.

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Germanium: From its discovery to SiGe devices - ScienceDirect

Aug 01, 2006  Abstract. Germanium, element #32, was discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler. Its first broad application was in the form of point contact Schottky diodes for radar reception during WWII. The addition of a closely spaced second contact led to the

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germanium Properties, Uses, Facts Britannica

Germanium (Ge), a chemical element between silicon and tin in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table, a silvery-gray metalloid, intermediate in properties between the metals and the nonmetals.Although germanium was not discovered until 1886 by Clemens Winkler, a German chemist, its existence, properties, and position in the periodic system had been predicted in 1871 by the Russian chemist

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Germanium Facts (Atomic Number 32 or Ge)

Jan 23, 2020  Germanium Basic Facts . Atomic Number: 32 Symbol: Ge Atomic Weight: 72.61; Discovery: Clemens Winkler 1886 (Germany) Electron Configuration: [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2; Word Origin: Latin Germania: Germany Properties: Germanium has a melting point of 937.4 C, boiling point of 2830 C, specific gravity of 5.323 (25 C), with valences of 2 and 4. In pure form, the element is a grayish

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The Discovery of Eka-Silicon Middlebury College Chem 103 lab

Sep 09, 2018  In this experiment, you will measure the density of 3 of the elements in group 14 and predict the density of Germanium. Background. Density is defined as mass per volume. It is normally expressed in units of g/cm 3 or g/mL (these are equivalent). Therefore, to measure the density of these elements, you will need to measure both the mass and the ...

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Facts About Germanium Live Science

Aug 25, 2016  Facts About Germanium. Germanium is a silvery white metalloid. This is a 2-by-3 centimeter piece of polycrystalline germanium, weighing about 12 grams. (Image credit: Jurii/Creative Commons) Shiny ...

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Who discovered EKA silicon?

Predicted in 1871 - discovered in 1886! A remarkable example for the ingenious conception of his periodic table is the element Germanium.Mendeleev arranged the elements of the 4th main group and found a gap in them: C, Si, ???, Sn, Pb. According to his

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Why was germanium named germanium? - Quora

In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silico...

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Germanium: Current and Novel Recovery Processes IntechOpen

Oct 03, 2018  Germanium (Ge) was discovered in Freiberg in 1885. One year later, it was isolated from the uncommon mineral argyrodite (Ag 8 GeS 6 ) by the chemist Clemens Winkler [ 1 ]. Ge is a chemical element with a grayish-white color whose position in the periodic table indicates that it has physicochemical properties similar to silicon (Si) and tin (Sn).

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Germanium Deposits in the United States

Jun 23, 2020  This data release provides data for the single site in the United States (U.S.) that has public record of germanium (Ge) production. Germanium, which is currently classified as a critical mineral in the U.S., is also extracted as a byproduct from deposits in Alaska, Washington, and Tennessee. However, there is no public information that documents germanium production from

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Germanium - Uses of Germanium Properties of Germanium ...

Germanium, a chemical element places between silicon and tin in Group 14 of the periodic table. A hard, grey-white, lustrous and brittle metalloid acts in properties between metals and nonmetals. The element is mostly distributed in nature, but it’s too reactive to occur free.

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CONCENTRATION OF GERMANIUM IN THE ASH OF

CONCENTRATION OF GERMANIUM IN THE ASH OF AMERICAN COALS A PROGRESS REPORT By Taisia Stadnichenko, K. J. Murata, Peter Zubovic, and Elizabeth L. Hufschmidt ... argyrodite [Ag8 GeS 6l, and the recently discovered renierite (Cu, Fe) 3 (Fe,Ge, Zn, Sn) (S, As)4 ;2 ,(Vaes, 1948), and none of them has been found in the United States. Deposits

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Germanium Elements Wiki Fandom

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol ... Because very few minerals contain it in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust.

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Who discovered germanium and when? - Answers

Oct 08, 2010  From wikipedia:Germanium was discovered comparatively late because very few minerals contain it in high concentration.Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the ...

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(PDF) Germanium: Environmental occurrence, importance and ...

Germanium was discovered in the year 1886 by the. ... The concentration of germanium increases with the. depth of the water mass and can reach values of up to. 10 ng l-1. It was found, for example ...

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Germanium - CreationWiki, the encyclopedia of creation science

Germanium is number 32 on the periodic table. Its electron configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2. It has an atomic weight of 72.64 g/mol and is a metalloid. It exists as a solid in nature. Germanium has 32 Protons and 41 Neutrons. It is similar to Silicon both physically and chemically. [6]

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Germanium news and latest updates

Germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry, because very few minerals contain it in high concentration. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the ...

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Germanium, Chemical Element - reaction, water, uses ...

Winkler discovered that the properties of germanium were very similar to those that Mendeleev had predicted 15 years earlier. For example, Mendeleev thought element 32 would have a density of 5.5 grams per cubic centimeter. The actual density for germanium is 5.47 grams per cubic centimeter.

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Germanium: Current and Novel Recovery Processes IntechOpen

Oct 03, 2018  Germanium (Ge) was discovered in Freiberg in 1885. One year later, it was isolated from the uncommon mineral argyrodite (Ag 8 GeS 6 ) by the chemist Clemens Winkler [ 1 ]. Ge is a chemical element with a grayish-white color whose position in the periodic table indicates that it has physicochemical properties similar to silicon (Si) and tin (Sn).

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Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t

Nov 29, 2016  Unfortunately, this technique does not work as well in germanium as it does in silicon; the material can’t withstand the high concentration of electron-donating dopants that would be needed to ...

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Semiconductor - Wikipedia

A large number of elements and compounds have semiconducting properties, including: Certain pure elements are found in Group 14 of the periodic table; the most commercially important of these elements are silicon and germanium.Silicon and germanium are used here effectively because they have 4 valence electrons in their outermost shell which gives them the ability to gain or lose electrons ...

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Germanium - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Germanium can be divided into inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic germanium is mined and widely used as a semiconductor in the electronics industry, whereas organic germanium is usually chemically synthesized or extracted from medicinal plants that contain high concentrations of germanium.

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Germanium nanospheres for ultraresolution picotensiometry ...

Feb 12, 2021  To study these machines, Sudhakar et al. developed germanium semiconductor nanospheres as probes for so-called optical tweezers. With these high–refractive index nanospheres, they improved the resolution of optical tweezers and discovered that the motor kinesin takes 4-nanometer substeps.

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Germanium - Uses, Pictures, Characteristics, Properties ...

Characteristics: Germanium is a lustrous, hard, gray-white semi-metallic element with a crystalline and brittle structure. Germanium also has the unusual property that (like water) it expands as it freezes. Four other elements expand when they freeze; silicon, bismuth, antimony and gallium. It is a semiconductor.

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[Ar]4s 3d 4p USGS Mineral Resources Program Germanium ...

Germanium is a semiconducting metalloid with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. Germanium was discovered in the late 1800s within silver ore at a mine near Freiberg, Germany. The German chemist who described the element, Clemens Winkler, named it germanium, after his native country.

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Germanium Statistics and Information - USGS

Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond; and it is brittle, like glass. In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. The development of the germanium

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Who discovered germanium and when? - Answers

Oct 08, 2010  From wikipedia:Germanium was discovered comparatively late because very few minerals contain it in high concentration.Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the ...

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Germanium - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Germanium is an element with high economic value and is used in novel and high-technological industrial applications, such as advanced electronic and optical devices [3].The concentration of Ge in typical Ge-rich coal and by-products is listed in Table 9.1.The first Ge-rich coal deposit found in the former USSR was in the Angren river valley (Uzbekistan) in the late 1950s.

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Characterizing Germanium with the Hall E ect

May 10, 2018  sample was characterized. The rst experiment described n-type germanium in terms of carrier concentration. The n-type germanium was found to have a carrier concentration n of 8:402 1020 m 3. The second experiment determined the band gap of germanium by heating an undoped germanium plate and measuring voltage as the plate cooled.

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Germanium (Ge) - Chemical properties, Health and ...

Germanium. Pure germanium is a hard, lustrous, gray-white, brittle metalloid. It has a diamondlike crystalline structure and it is similar in chemical and physical properties to silicon.Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid.

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Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t

Nov 29, 2016  Unfortunately, this technique does not work as well in germanium as it does in silicon; the material can’t withstand the high concentration of electron-donating dopants that would be needed to ...

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Ge Germanium Element Information: Facts, Properties ...

Ge Germanium Element information, facts. Germanium properties, uses and trends Periodic Table of the Elements - complete information about the germanium element - Facts, atomic mass, melting point, How to Locate on Periodic Table, History, Abundance, Physical Properties, Thermal Properties, Crystal Structure, Atomic Orbital Properties, electron configuration, Chemical Properties germanium ...

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Chem4Kids: Germanium: General Info and Everyday Items

Germanium was discovered in 1886 by a chemist named Winkler and was named after Germany. You will find many other elements that were named after people or places as you study the elements of the periodic table. Germanium has been found in many minerals and when purified, is a grayish color but has physicals traits of both a metal and a crystal.

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Germanium Properties, History and Applications

Jun 25, 2019  Germanium tetrachloride is then hydrolyzed and dried, producing germanium dioxide (GeO2). The oxide is then reduced with hydrogen to form germanium metal powder. Germanium powder is cast into bars at temperatures over 1720.85 °F (938.25 °C).

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Germanium - Periodic Table and Atomic Properties

Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Germanium. Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 which means there are 32 protons in its nucleus.Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z.The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

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Synthesis of Antimonene on Germanium

This is particularly the case for the recently discovered monoelemental group V 2D materials which can only be produced by exfoliation or growth on exotic substrates. Herein, to overcome this limitation, we demonstrate a scalable method to synthesize antimonene on germanium substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy.

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ELEMENT: GERMANIUM - RADIOCHEMISTRY

The element is a gray-white metalloid. In its pure state, the element is crystalline and brittle, retaining its luster in air at room temperature. It is a very important semiconductor material. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use

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Hazard assessment of germanium supplements

Germanium-containing dietary supplements became popular in the 1970s in Japan and later in other countries, as elixirs for certain diseases (e.g., cancer and AIDS). Germanium is not an essential element. Its acute toxicity is low. However, at least 31 reported human cases linked prolonged intake of

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concentration germanium estimates - bazantlubin

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayishwhite metalloid in the carbon group, ... Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Get Price; Doped Semiconductors UW

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